Maldives: Reform in politics but not in religious liberty
GeneralDecember 9, 2008
From: WEA RLC Principal Researcher and Writer, Elizabeth Kendal
On Saturday 29 November, Maldives' Ministry of Islamic Affairs announced
that it would block a Dhivehi and English language website which it
claimed was promoting Christianity amongst Maldivians.
When Minivan News, an independent news source in Maldives, sought to
question Islamic Affairs Minister Dr Abdul Majeed Abdul Bari over the
censorship and the contents of the website, he refused to be drawn. So
Minivan News did its own investigations. "On Tuesday, as Minivan News
searched for the site, it came across one (www.sidahitun.com) which
contained material about Jesus Christ and Christian songs published in
Dhivehi. The following morning, access to the site was denied."
Minivan reports: "Sheikh Ibrahim Fareed Ahmed, known for his
inflammatory sermons, agreed that all anti-Islamic websites should be
banned. 'Although this is an Islamic society, some Maldivians' faith in
Islam is not very strong,' he said. 'If they have access to these
websites, because their belief in Islam is weak, there might be a
negative impact.' . . .
"A similar view was upheld by scholar Sheikh Usman Abdullah who said
that as the Maldives is recognised as a wholly Muslim society, all
anti-Islamic activities, including websites promoting Christianity,
should be banned. . . .
"Human rights undergraduate Hamza Latheef, 23, said while the ministry
has not officially acknowledged the existence of non-Muslim communities
in the Maldives, the fact they wanted to block websites with Christian
evangelical content may indicate the reality of the situation. . . .
"The constitution of the Maldives states that everyone has the right to
freedom of thought and the freedom to communicate opinions and
expression as long as it is not in a manner contrary to any tenet of Islam.
"The Protection of Religious Unity Act (Law No. 6/94) guards against all
anti-Islamic activities in the Maldives." (Link 1)
WHAT EVER HAPPENED TO REFORM?
On 29 October history was made in Islamic Maldives when a peaceful
transition of power was achieved through free and fair democratic
elections. Maumoon Abdul Gayoom -- an Islamic scholar who had ruled
Maldives as a dictator for some 30 years -- was defeated in a
presidential run-off by former political prisoner, torture victim and
long-time reform-advocate Mohammad Nasheed (popularly known as "Anni")
of the Maldivian Democratic Party (MDP).
On 3 September, Maldives' six presidential candidates appeared on a
panel to answer questions on their political aspirations. Nasheed told
state television that if he were elected president he would run a
compassionate government committed to reducing the cost of living,
improving housing, improving inter-island trade and transport, improving
healthcare, eliminating monopolies and corruption in fish markets, and
developing more equity in service provision across island communities.
Concerning human rights he said: "It is very important for the citizens'
human rights to be protected."
"Our country is moving towards a change," he said. "No one should doubt
this. We are escaping from censorship of freedom of expression, and from
barriers to human rights today. We are going to another Maldives, to
Aneh Dhivehi Raajje [other Maldives]." (Link 2)
However, as Minivan writer Ibrahim Mohamed noted on 3 December, "There
may have been a change in government, but so far, this has not extended
into the sphere of religion." (Link 3)
HAMSTRUNG BY A BAD MARRIAGE
- there is none more powerful than he who holds the balance of power!
The Maldivian Democratic Party is a broad party whose members have
dissented from Gayoom's dictatorship for a variety of reasons. While
all MDP members were moving away from Gayoom's dictatorship in pursuit
of liberty and rights, some were moving towards the West while others
were moving towards an even more intolerant fundamentalist Islam.
The party's religious fundamentalist right-wing faction wields
considerable power. When they railed against Nasheed's nomination of Dr.
Aminath Jameel as his running mate -- deeming it un-Islamic on the
grounds that she was a woman -- the gender-equity-advocate Nasheed
withdrew his nomination.
Further to this, in order to win the presidential election, Nasheed
formed a coalition which included the very small, hard-line, right-wing,
Islamic fundamentalist Adaalath (or Adhaalath) Party.
Religion has become a powerful tool in Maldivian politics and it
featured highly throughout the presidential campaign. President Gayoom
accused the opposition of being "Christian" (an offensive name for those
deemed to be not sufficiently Islamic), while Adaalath challenged
President Gayoom's re-election bid in the Supreme Court claiming that he
was "without doubt an infidel" on the grounds that he opposed things
such as Sharia-mandated amputations and mandatory veiling, and had
publicly declared music to be "halal" (permissible) (see Link 4).
Meanwhile, in June 2008, President Gayoom's Supreme Council of Islamic
Affairs, under pressure from the Islamic Democratic Party (IDP) and the
Adaalath Party, banned the book "Freedom of Religion, Apostasy in Islam"
-- co-authored by former Attorney-General and presidential candidate Dr
Hassan Saeed -- on the grounds that it "violates Islamic principles".
The book was published in 2004 and is not available for sale in
Maldives. Yet, after four years without controversy, Maldivian Islamic
forces decided the presidential campaign was a perfect time to deal with
the blasphemies and heresies of their competitor. (This might explain Dr
Saeed's change of tone in August 2008 when he supported the Islamic
nature of the new Constitution on the grounds that "we do not have a
non-Muslim population". His presidential canditure had just suffered a
It all makes one wonder -- what sort of deals has the reformist Nasheed
brokered to bring Adaalath on side?
A SAUDI-STYLE ARRANGEMENT?
When Nasheed announced his cabinet in early November, Adaalath Scholar's
council president, Dr Abdul Majeed Abdul Bari -- who believes music is
"haram" (forbidden: see link 6) and apostates should be executed (see
link 7) -- was named Minister of Islamic Affairs. Further to this, the
new Ministry of Islamic Affairs (which has replaced Gayoom's Supreme
Council of Islamic Affairs) is dominated by Adaalath Party members.
Ibrahim Mohamed reports: "Every single Friday prayer, since the
inauguration of the new government, has been led by a religious figure
from Adaalath. Only scholars associated with the Adaalath party are
allowed to give previously unseen sermons; all other Imams are asked to
read sermons pre-approved by the Ministry of Islamic Affairs." (Link 3)
This has the appearance of a Saudi-style deal, where Islamic hardliners
are given full control over religion in exchange for "peace", political
security, and the Islamic legitimisation of the ruling party. This is
pragmatism at its worst, for such an arrangement guarantees Islamic
fundamentalism a free ride.
On 24 November, Minivan News Briefs reported that a Maldivian man is
being investigated for importing an English language Bible into the
country. According to the Maldives Customs Service, the item is illegal
and the police are now investigating the matter. (Link 8)
As reported, on 29 November the Adaalath Party-dominated Ministry for
Islamic Affairs closed down a website that gave Maldivians access to
Christian information and resources in their own language.
So whatever happened to reform and human rights, and to "escaping from
censorship of freedom of expression"? Reform has come to Maldives -- but
only to politics, not to religious liberty.
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