On 1 February 2005 Nepal’s King Gyanendra, backed by the Nepalese Army,
dismissed the Prime Minister and his government, seized absolute power in a
bloodless coup and declared a state of emergency. He claimed the move was
necessary to combat the Maoist insurgency. Civil rights were suspended, the
press was muzzled and opposition leaders were imprisoned.
But King Gyanendra did not anticipate the consequences of his royal coup.
Not only did it send anti-monarchy sentiment soaring but the royal coup
brought Nepal’s warring parties together, united and re-focused by their
opposition to direct, totalitarian royal rule.
In November 2005 the Maoists met with the seven major opposition political
parties in New Dehli, India. With India as mediator they reached an
agreement to work together to end the king’s rule.
In April 2006, after 19 days of continuous, massive public demonstrations
that crippled Kathmandu, King Gyanendra stepped down and handed power to the
Seven Party Alliance (SPA). The Maoists declared a ceasefire, the SPA agreed
to drop the terrorist label from the Maoists, include them in a future
government and release their cadres from prison. The Maoists agreed to end
their guerrilla war and eventually lay down their arms.
On 18 May Nepal’s new parliament publicly declared that Nepal would no
longer be a Hindu Kingdom but would now be a secular state.
On Tuesday 21 November the Maoists and the SPA signed a Comprehensive Peace
Agreement, bringing to an end the decade-long conflict that has claimed more
than 13,000 lives, caused immense suffering, and compounded poverty and
hardship nationwide. (Link 1)
Most importantly, the peace agreement reiterates the commitment to uphold
civil rights, human rights, equality and religious liberty as defined by the
Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
In Article 3.5 of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement both parties agree to
“End the existing centralised and unitary state system and restructure it
into an inclusive, democratic progressive system to address various problems
including that of women, Dalits, indigenous community, Madhesis, oppressed,
ignored and minority communities, backward regions by ending prevailing
class, ethnic, linguistic, gender, cultural, religious and regional
Article 7.1.1 reads: “Both parties reaffirm their commitment to respect and
protect human rights and international humanitarian law and accept that no
individual shall be discriminated on the basis of caste, gender, language,
religion, age, ethnic groups, national or social origin, property,
disability, birth or any other status, thoughts or conscience.” (Link 2)
The Guardian reports: “An interim government is due to be formed on December
1, with rebels getting get 73 of the chamber’s 330 seats. The Nepali
Congress will remain the biggest party, with 85 seats, and the Maoists will
share second place with the Communist party of Nepal. The rest will be held
by smaller parties.” (Link 3)
The election of the Constituent Assembly is slated for June 2007, after
which a new Constitution will be drafted.
New challenges will doubtless present themselves, such as the emergence of
religious (Hindu nationalists) political parties and separatism. Jaykrishna
Goit’s Terai Jantantrik Liberation Front is fanning separatism in the
southern lowlands, the Terai (Nepal’s “breadbasket”) which is populated
overwhelmingly by Madhesis. Madhesis form up to 50 percent of the population
of Nepal and 95 percent of all Madhesis live in the Terai. The Madhesis are
Nepalese of Indian origin and have for decades suffered crippling
discrimination, including from the Maoists. Madhesis’ grievances and
marginalisation will have to be addressed if a new conflict is to be
1) Comprehensive Peace Accord signed, Armed Insurgency declared officially
2) Full text of Comprehensive Peace Agreement (21 Nov 2006)
Full text of the decisions of the SPA-Maoist summit meeting (8 Nov 2006)
3) Nepal rejoices as peace deal ends civil war
Randeep Ramesh, south Asia correspondent
Thursday 23 November 2006
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